Review Questions--Chapter 2 Neuroscience and Behav
Chapter 2 Neuroscience and Behavior
1 Neurons, or nerve cells, are the basic elements of the nervous system. You have perhaps as many as _________ neurons throughout your body.
A) 157 million
B) 1 billion
C) 1 trillion
D) 10 trillion
2 Which of the following is not part of a neuron’s internal structure?
B) glial cell
3 A myelin sheath cannot
A) prevent messages from short-circuiting one another.
B) increase the velocity with which the electrical impulses (that carry the messages) travel through the axons.
C) insulate axons.
D) fire neurons.
4 Just after an action potential has passed through a section of the axon, the cell membrane in that region cannot admit positive ions again for a few milliseconds, and so
A) the neuron cannot fire again immediately.
B) a second impulse travels along the axon more slowly.
C) the neuron will fire again immediately.
D) the neuron is in a normal resting state.
5 A chemical connection bridges the gap, known as a(an) _______, between two neurons.
A) action potential
B) myelin sheath
C) positive ionic connection
6 Just one neuron can be connected to ________ other neurons.
7 The two main parts of the nervous system are the:
A) left and right brains.
B) peripheral and central.
C) brain and the brain stem.
D) none of the above
8 Which of the following does the autonomic nervous system not control?
A) the heart
9 The __________ gland, found near the hypothalamus in the brain, is a major component of the endocrine system.
10 Which of the following brain scanning techniques utilize magnetic fields?
D) both b & c
11 The function of the cerebellum is to:
A) control bodily balance.
B) analyze sensory information.
C) engage in problem solving.
D) all of the above
12 The reticular formation
A) responds to loud noises.
B) stores memories.
C) transmits motor information.
D) integrates the right and left sides of the cortex.
13 The cortex has four major areas or lobes. Which is a lobe not found in the cortex?
14 _____________ is a procedure in which a person learns to control, through conscious thought, internal physiological processes such as blood pressure, heart and respiration rates, skin temperature, sweating, and constriction of particular muscles.
C) Electrode implantation
ⅡFill in the Blanks
1 In contrast to most other cells, neurons have a distinctive feature: the ability to ___with other cells.
2 Axons end in small bulges called terminal buttons that send messages to other neurons; the terminal buttons contain____.
3 Neurons follow a(an) ____law; they are either on or off.
4 Even though all impulses move at the same strength or speed through a particular axon--because of the all-or-none law--there is variation in the ____.
5 One of the most common neurotransmitters, ____, is involved in our every move because it transmits messages relating to our skeletal muscles.
6 Connections among neurons are not the only means of communication within the body; the ____secretes chemicals that circulate through the blood, also communicating messages that influence behavior and many aspects of biological functioning.
7 The spinal cord is not just a communications conduit; it also controls some simple kinds of behavior on its own. Such behaviors are called ____. One example occurs when your knee is tapped with a rubber hammer.
8 Sensory (or____) neurons transmit information from the sensory organs to the central nervous system, and motor (or____) neurons communicate information from the nervous system to muscles.
9 According to the "fight or flight" syndrome, when you have five_minutes to turn in your paper, and you have just found a parking space, the ____engages all of your resources to prepare your body to respond to stressful emergency situations (e.g., running across campus).
10 Behavioral genetics researchers are finding increasing evidence that ____are determined to some extent by genetic factors.
11 The ____uses a computer to construct an image of the structures of the brain by combining thousands of separate x-rays taken at slightly different angles.
12 The ____is a busy relay system, the "switchboard" of the brain, directing information to the appropriate areas.
13 Those features unique to the human brain are the abilities to think, evaluate, and make complex judgments. These abilities are located primarily in the____.
14 Most of our understanding of the association areas comes from patients who have suffered some type of____.
15 New research highlights the fact that the brain continually reorganizes itself in a process termed____.
Ⅲ Answer Questions
1 Describe the roles of three neurotransmitters.
2 Discuss the neural basis of one disease mentioned in the chapter.
3 Scientists only recently succeeded in mapping human genes as part of a massive, multibillion-dollar project known as the Human Genome Project, which, after a decade of effort, identified the sequence of the three billion chemical pairs that make up human DNA. Explain why this is important to research on the nervous system.
4 Although not a structure of the brain itself, the endocrine system is intimately tied to the hypothalamus. What role does the hypothalamus play in regulating our behavior?
5 Describe three brain scanning techniques and explain how the information they provide can help us to learn more about the nervous system and its functioning.
6 If you were to have a tiny electrode implanted in your limbic system, how could it affect your behavior? Would this be a good thing or a bad thing? Why?
7 Despite the appearance of similarity between the two hemispheres of the brain, they are somewhat different in the functions they control and the ways they control them. Explain what the two hemispheres do and how they differ.